Main Forage Category Sub Forage Category Scientific Name Common Name Flowering Period
Exotic forage Forestry (Eucalyptus) includes formal plantations and other stands Eucalyptus grandis * Saligna gum May-Jul
Eucalyptus cladocalyx * Sugar gum Dec-Feb
Eucalyptus conferruminata * Spider gum Aug-Sep
Eucalyptus diversicolor * Karri gum Feb-Apr
Eucalyptus / ficifolia Red flowering gum Jun-Jul
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Black ironbark gum Aug-Oct
Agricultural crops Allium cepa Onion Oct-Dec
Citrus spp. Citrus Sep-Nov
Daucus carota Carrot Nov-Dec
Medicago sativa Lusern/Lucerne Sep-Mar
Malus domestica Apple Oct-Nov
Persea americana Avocado Aug-Oct
Suburban plantings Phytolacca dioica * Omb� Oct-Dec
Schinus terebinthifolius * Brazillian pepper Nov-Apr
Suburban gardens Sep-Jan
Weeds Raphanus raphanistrum Wild radish Apr-Aug
Indigenous / Natural Forage Natural species or species groups Acacia / Senegalia mellifera ^ Black thorn Sep-Dec
Acacia caffra / Senegalia caffra ^ Common hook thorn Oct-Mar
Acacia karroo / Vachellia karroo ^ Sweet thorn Sep-Mar
Aloe ferox Red aloe Jul-Aug
Erica spp. Erica spp. Jan-Dec
Euclea spp. Guarris May-Sep
Juncus spp. Rush May-Dec
Mesembs Mesembs Jan-Dec
Olea europaea subsp. Cuspidata Wild olive Jan-Dec
Protea spp. Protea spp. Jan-Dec
Salix mucronata Cape silver willow Aug-Oct
Scutia myrtina Cat thorn Dec
Searsia lancea Karee Dec-Apr
Vegetation units Eastern Cape Thicket Jan-Dec
Eastern Cape Thicket Jan-Dec
Indigenous Forest Jan-Dec
Coastal fynbos Jan-Dec
Mountain Fynbos Dec-Apr
Karoo Jan-Dec
Bushveld Jan-Dec

Plants important to South African beekeepers as honey bee forage (adopted from 2011-2013 beekeeper survey; Tlou Masehela PhD Thesis). Beekeeper home province. Some species may not occur here, but beekeepers are moving hives to those species from this province.

Main Forage Category Sub Forage Category Scientific Name Common Name Flowering Period
Exotic forage Forestry (Eucalyptus) includes formal plantations and other (Euc Eucalyptus paniculata Grey ironbark gum Sep-Mar
Eucalyptus / ficifolia Red flowering gum Dec-Feb
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Black ironbark gum Aug-Mar
Agricultural crops Medicago sativa Lusern/Lucerne Nov-Mar
Suburban plantings Suburban plantings Suburban gardens Aug-Oct
Weeds Echium vulgare * Echium/Bloublom Aug-Nov
Bidens formosa Cosmos Mar-May
Hypochaeris radicata False dandelion Aug-Oct
Plantago lanceolata Plantain Aug-Oct
Raphanus raphanistrum Wild radish Apr-Dec
Indigenous/Natural Forage Natural species or species groups Acacia / Senegalia mellifera ^ Black thorn Oct-Jan
Acacia caffra / Senegalia caffra ^ Common hook thorn Oct-Jan
Acacia karroo / Vachellia karroo ^ Sweet thorn Oct-Jan
Searsia lancea Karee Apr-May
Senecio apiifolius Winter weed May-Aug
Vegetation units Karoo Aug-Mar

Plants important to South African beekeepers as honey bee forage (adopted from 2011-2013 beekeeper survey; Tlou Masehela PhD Thesis).  Beekeeper home province. Some species may not occur here, but beekeepers are moving hives to those species from this province.

Main Forage Category Sub Forage Category Scientific Name Common Name Flowering Period
Indigenous / Natural Forage Forestry (Eucalyptus) includes formal plantations and other stands Eucalyptus melliodora Yellow box gum Oct-Feb
Eucalyptus camaldulensis * River red gum Sep-Mar
Eucalyptus cladocalyx * Sugar gum Oct-Dec
Eucalyptus / ficifolia Red flowering gum Jun-Jan
Eucalyptus grandis * Saligna gum Oct-Feb
Eucalyptus paniculata Grey ironbark gum Aug-Feb
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Black ironbark gum Feb-Oct
Eucalyptus tereticornis * Forest red gum May-Oct
Eucalyptus viminalis Manna gum Mar-Jun
Agricultural crops Citrus spp. Citrus May-Sep
Helianthus annuus Sunflower Jan-Mar
Litchi spp. Litchi Aug
Macadamia spp. Macadamia Oct
Medicago sativa Lusern/Lucerne Sep-Mar
Magnifera indica Mango Aug
Passiflora edulis Granadilla Aug-Apr
Persea americana Avocado Oct-Dec
Phaseolus vulgaris Kidney beans Jan-Mar
Rubus idaeus Raspberry Oct-Feb
Saccharum spp. Suger-cane Dec-May
Vaccinium spp. Blueberry Jun-Dec
Suburban plantings Jacaranda mimosifolia * Jacaranda Aug-Nov
Schinus terebinthifolius * Brazillian pepper Nov-Mar
Suburban gardens Sep-Apr
Weeds Acacia decurrens * Green wattle Jul-Sep
Bidens formosa Cosmos Jan-May
Bidens pilosa Black jack Feb-Apr
Hypochaeris radicata False dandelion Feb-Apr
Prosopis spp. * Prosopis spp. Sep-Oct
Tagetes minuta Khakhi bush Oct-Apr
Indigenous/Natural Forage Natural species or species groups Acacia / Senegalia mellifera ^ Black thorn Oct-Jan
Acacia caffra / Senegalia caffra ^ Common hook thorn Sep-Jan
Acacia / Senegalia Monkey thorn Sep-Jan
Acacia karroo / Vachellia karroo ^ Sweet thorn Oct-Jan
Agathosma spp. Buchu Dec
Aloe grandidentata Kanniedood May-Jul
Aloe greatheadii subsp davyana Spotted aloe Jun-Sep
Aloe marlothii Mountain aloe May-Jul
Asparagus spp. ^ Wild asparagus Sep-Oct
Combretum spp. Bushwillow Oct-Jan
Dombeya rotundifolia Wild pear Aug-Sep
Faurea saligna Bushveld boekenhout Nov-Jan
Protea spp. Protea spp. Nov-Jan
Scutia myrtina Cat thorn Nov-Jan
Searsia lancea Karee Feb-Jul
Senecio apiifolius Winter weed Apr-Jul
Ziziphus mucronata Buffalo thorn Oct-Jan
Vegetation units Vegetation units Bushveld Jan-Dec

Plants important to South African beekeepers as honey bee forage (adopted from 2011-2013 beekeeper survey; Tlou Masehela PhD Thesis). Beekeeper home province. Some species may not occur here, but beekeepers are moving hives to those species from this province.

Main Forage Category Sub Forage Category Scientific Name Common Name Flowering Period
Exotic Forage Forestry (Eucalyptus) includes formal plantations and other stands Eucalyptus grandis * Saligna gum Jan-Jul
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Black ironbark gum Aug-Mar
Agricultural crops Allium cepa Onion Mar
Aspalathus linearis Rooibos Oct-Feb
Brassica napus var. oleifera Canola Jun
Citrus spp. Citrus Aug-Nov
Helianthus annuus Sunflower Feb-Mar
Litchi spp. Litchi Sep-Oct
Macadamia spp. Macadamia Aug-Oct
Persea americana Avocado Jul-Nov
Saccharum spp. Suger-cane Nov-Jan
Vitis vinifera Grape Mar
Suburban plantings Suburban gardens Jan-Dec
Indigenous / Natural Forage Natural species or species groups Acacia karroo / Vachellia karroo ^ Sweet thorn Nov-Jan
Aloe greatheadii subsp davyana Spotted aloe May
Halleria spp. Halleria spp. May-Dec
Searsia lancea Karee Aug-Sep
Ziziphus mucronata Buffalo thorn Oct-Feb
Vegetation units Indigenous Forest Jan-Dec
Eastern Cape Thicket Dec-Jan

Plants important to South African beekeepers as honey bee forage (adopted from 2011-2013 beekeeper survey; Tlou Masehela PhD Thesis). Beekeeper home province. Some species may not occur here, but beekeepers are moving hives to those species from this province.

Main Forage Category Sub Forage Category Scientific Name Common Name Flowering Period
Exotic Forage Forestry (Eucalyptus) includes formal plantations and other stands Eucalyptus grandis * Saligna gum Feb-Aug
Eucalyptus diversicolor * Karri gum Jan-Apr
Eucalyptus paniculata Grey ironbark gum May-Jun
Agricultural crops Citrus spp. Citrus May-Jul
Cucurbita sp. Pumpkin Jan-Mar
Cucurbita sp. (Butternut) Butternut Nov-Mar
Helianthus annuus Sunflower Nov-Mar
Litchi spp. Litchi Nov-Mar
Macadamia spp. Macadamia May-Oct
Magnifera indica Mango Aug-Nov
Persea americana Avocado Mar-Apr
Saccharum spp. Suger-cane Feb-Mar
Suburban plantings Suburban gardens Jan-Dec
Indigenous / Natural Forage Natural species or species groups Acacia / Senegalia mellifera ^ Black thorn Sep-Nov
Acacia caffra / Senegalia caffra ^ Common hook thorn Oct-Jan
Acacia karroo / Vachellia karroo ^ Sweet thorn Dec-Jan
Aloe greatheadii subsp davyana Spotted aloe Jun-Jul
Faurea saligna Bushveld boekenhout Sep-Nov
Searsia lancea Karee Sep-Nov
Vegetation units Indigenous Forest Sep-Mar
Bushveld Sep-Jan

Plants important to South African beekeepers as honey bee forage (adopted from 2011-2013 beekeeper survey; Tlou Masehela PhD Thesis). Beekeeper home province. Some species may not occur here, but beekeepers are moving hives to those species from this province.

Main Forage Category Sub Forage Category Scientific Name Common Name Flowering Period
Exotic Forage Forestry (Eucalyptus) includes formal plantations and other stands Eucalyptus camaldulensis * River red gum Jun-Nov
Eucalyptus fastigata Brown barrel gum Dec-Jan
Eucalyptus grandis * Saligna gum Feb-Jun
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Black ironbark gum Mar-Aug
Agricultural crops Brassica napus var. oleifera Canola Jul-Aug
Citrus spp. Citrus Aug-Nov
Helianthus annuus Sunflower Feb-Mar
Litchi spp. Litchi Aug-Nov
Macadamia spp. Macadamia Sep-Dec
Medicago sativa Lusern/Lucerne Nov-Mar
Magnifera indica Mango Sep-Nov
Malus domestica Apple Oct-Dec
Persea americana Avocado Sep-Oct
Phaseolus vulgaris Kidney beans Jan-Mar
Psidium guajava Guava Sep-Dec
Rubus idaeus Raspberry Feb-Mar
Saccharum spp. Suger-cane Nov-May
Vitis vinifera Grape Mar
Suburban plantings Suburban gardens Jan-Dec
Weeds Bidens formosa Cosmos Mar-Apr
Bidens pilosa Black jack Feb-Apr
Indigenous / Natural Forage Natural species or species groups Acacia karroo / Vachellia karroo ^ Sweet thorn Dec-Feb
Aloe greatheadii subsp davyana Spotted aloe Jun-Aug
Aloe marlothii Mountain aloe Jun-Aug
Asparagus spp. ^ Wild asparagus Sep-Nov
Combretum spp. Bushwillow Jun-Aug
Dombeya rotundifolia Wild pear Jul-Sep
Euclea natalensis Natal guarri Jun-Nov
Faurea saligna Bushveld boekenhout Dec-Feb
Halleria lucida Tree fuchsia Jun-Nov
Searsia chirindensis Red currant Aug-Dec
Searsia lancea Karee Jul-Aug
Senecio apiifolius Winter weed Jun-Aug
Ziziphus mucronata Buffalo thorn Sep-Nov
Vegetation units Bushveld Jan-Dec
Indigenous Forest Sep-Nov

Plants important to South African beekeepers as honey bee forage (adopted from 2011-2013 beekeeper survey; Tlou Masehela PhD Thesis). Beekeeper home province. Some species may not occur here, but beekeepers are moving hives to those species from this province.

Main Forage Category Sub Forage Category Scientific Name Common Name Flowering Period
Exotic Forage Forestry (Eucalyptus) includes formal plantations and other stands Eucalyptus sideroxylon Black ironbark gum Mar-Aug
Eucalyptus camaldulensis * River red gum Nov
Eucalyptus melliodora Yellow box gum Sep-Oct
Agricultural crops Allium cepa Onion Oct-Nov
Cucurbita sp. Pumpkin Oct-Mar
Helianthus annuus Sunflower Feb-Mar
Medicago sativa Lusern/Lucerne Sep-Mar
Suburban plantings Schinus terebinthifolius * Brazillian pepper Jan-Mar
Suburban gardens Nov-Mar
Weeds Hypochaeris radicata False dandelion Aug-Oct
Prosopis spp. * Prosopis spp. Oct-Dec
Indigenous / Natural Forage Natural species or species groups Acacia / Senegalia mellifera ^ Black thorn Aug-Oct
Acacia caffra / Senegalia caffra ^ Common hook thorn Aug
Acacia karroo / Vachellia karroo ^ Sweet thorn Dec-Jan
Acacia tortilis / Vachellia tortilis ^ Umbrella thorn Nov-Mar
Aloe grandidentata Kanniedood Jul-Aug
Aloe marlothii Mountain aloe Jun-Sep
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata Wild olive Jan-Mar
Searsia lancea Karee Feb-Apr
Senecio apiifolius Winter weed May-Aug
Ziziphus mucronata Buffalo thorn Oct-Jan
Zygophyllum spp. Jun-Jul
Vegetation units Namaqualand & Renosterveld Jul-Sep
Karoo May-Aug

Plants important to South African beekeepers as honey bee forage (adopted from 2011-2013 beekeeper survey; Tlou Masehela PhD Thesis). Beekeeper home province. Some species may not occur here, but beekeepers are moving hives to those species from this province.

Main Forage Category Sub Forage Category Scientific Name Common Name Flowering Period
Exotic Forage Forestry (Eucalyptus) includes formal plantations and other stands Eucalyptus grandis * Saligna gum Nov-Feb
Eucalyptus camaldulensis * River red gum Sep-Dec
Eucalyptus melliodora Yellow box gum May-Dec
Eucalyptus paniculata Grey ironbark gum Apr-Aug
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Black ironbark gum Mar-Oct
Eucalyptus tereticornis * Forest red gum Sep-Nov
Eucalyptus viminalis Manna gum Nov-Jan
Agricultural crops Cucurbita sp. Pumpkin Dec-Jan
Macadamia spp. Macadamia Jan-Apr
Suburban plantings Suburban gardens Jan-Dec
Weeds Bidens formosa Cosmos Mar-May
Raphanus raphanistrum Wild radish May-Jul
Indigenous / Natural Forage Natural species or species groups Acacia / Senegalia mellifera ^ Black thorn Sep-Oct
Acacia caffra / Senegalia caffra ^ Common hook thorn Sep-Dec
Acacia karroo / Vachellia karroo ^ Sweet thorn Oct-Jan
Aloe greatheadii subsp davyana Spotted aloe Jul-Aug
Aloe marlothii Mountain aloe Jun-Jul
Searsia lancea Karee Apr-Jul
Ziziphus mucronata Buffalo thorn Nov-Jan
Vegetation units Bushveld Sep-Jan

Plants important to South African beekeepers as honey bee forage (adopted from 2011-2013 beekeeper survey; Tlou Masehela PhD Thesis). Beekeeper home province. Some species may not occur here, but beekeepers are moving hives to those species from this province.

Main Forage Category Sub Forage Category Scientific Name Common Name Flowering Period
Exotic Forage Forestry (Eucalyptus) includes formal plantations and other stands Eucalyptus camaldulensis * River red gum Aug-Jan
Eucalyptus cladocalyx * Sugar gum Dec-Mar
Eucalyptus conferruminata * Spider gum. Sep-Mar
Eucalyptus diversicolor * Karri gum Sep-Apr
Eucalyptus / ficifolia Red flowering gum Sep-Apr
Eucalyptus gomphocephala Tuart gum Nov-May
Eucalyptus grandis * Saligna gum Sep-May
Eucalyptus / Corymbia maculata Spotted gum Feb-Jun
Eucalyptus melliodora Yellow box gum Aug-Feb
Eucalyptus paniculata Grey ironbark gum Aug-Oct
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Black ironbark gum Mar-Sep
Eucalyptus tereticornis * Forest red gum Aug-Nov
Eucalyptus viminalis Manna gum Feb-Jun
Agricultural crops Allium cepa Onion Nov-Jan
Brassica napus var. oleifera Canola Jun-Sep
Brassica sp. (Broccoli) Broccoli Apr-Nov
Brassica sp. (Cabbage) Cabbage Jul-Aug
Brassica sp. (Cauliflower) Cauliflower Apr-Nov
Citrus spp. Citrus May-Nov
Cucurbita sp. Pumpkin Dec-Mar
Daucus carota Carrot Nov-Dec
Helianthus annuus Sunflower Jan-Mar
Macadamia spp. Macadamia Aug-Feb
Medicago sativa Lusern/Lucerne Oct-Apr
Magnifera indica Mango Nov-Jan
Malus domestica Apple Sep-Nov
Prunus spp. Prune/Plum Aug-Nov
Psidium guajava Guava Apr-Dec
Pyrus communis Pear Sep-Nov
Rubus idaeus Raspberry Feb-Mar
Trifolium spp. Clover Jul-Sep
Vicia dasycarpa Purple vetch Mar-Apr
Vitis vinifera Grape Dec-Mar
Suburban plantings Quercus robur English oak Sep
Schinus terebinthifolius * Brazillian pepper Oct-May
Suburban gardens Jan-Dec
Weeds Echium vulgare * Echium/Bloublom Jul-Dec
Hypochaeris radicata False dandelion Feb-Apr
Leptospermum laevigatum * Coastal Tea Tree Aug-Sep
Myoporum tenuifolium * Manatoka Sep-Nov
Prosopis spp. * Prosopis spp. Oct-Jan
Raphanus raphanistrum Wild radish May-Oct
Indigenous / Natural Forage Natural species or species groups Acacia karroo / Vachellia karroo ^ Sweet thorn Nov-Jan
Agathosma spp. Buchu Mar-Oct
Aloe ferox Red aloe Jun-Jul
Aloe marlothii Mountain aloe Jul
Asparagus spp. ^ Wild asparagus Sep-Oct
Carpobrotus edulis Sour fig Aug-Oct
Erica spp. Erica spp. Apr-Oct
Euclea spp. Guarris Jan
Euryops Virgineus Honey euryops Nov-Jan
Isoglossa eckloniana Buckweed Mar-Jul
Mesembs Mesembs Aug-Feb
Morella cordifolia Wasbossie Jan-Feb
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata Wild olive May-Aug
Oxalis pes-caprae ^ Buttercup oxalis Jan-Mar
Oxalis stricta Commom yellow woodsorrel Aug-Oct
Protea spp. Protea spp. May-Dec
Scutia myrtina Cat thorn Mar-Jul
Searsia lancea Karee Oct-May
Searsia pedulina White karee Apr-May
Watsonia fourcadei Watsonia fourcadei Jul-Sep
Zygophyllum spp. Mar-Apr
Vegetation units Coastal fynbos Jan-Dec
Mountain fynbos Jan-Dec
Strandveld Jan-Dec
Karoo Jan-Dec
Indigenous Forest Jan-Dec
Namaqualand & Renosterveld Jan-Dec
Bushveld May

Plants important to South African beekeepers as honey bee forage (adopted from 2011-2013 beekeeper survey; Tlou Masehela PhD Thesis). Beekeeper home province. Some species may not occur here, but beekeepers are moving hives to those species from this province.